TAO OF MASTERY:
The Seventh Pillar of Taoism, the Tao of Mastery, is invaluable in the understanding of humanity and the purpose of one’s own existence. It can also serve as a priceless guide for the achievement of lifelong goals and harmony between oneself and the universe. The Tao of Mastery is an amalgam of six systems: Taoist Personology (shape study), Taoist Fingerprint System, Taoist Numerology, North Star Astrological System, Directionology and Symbology (spiritual communication). A brief description of each will follow.
I. TAOIST PERSONOLOGY
The building of organic shapes and forms is guided by genes as is the determination of intelligence, temperament, reaction patterns and personality.
Besides the genes, there are the nerves, whose influence begins at the brain and ends in the face and the extremities. The nerve endings are the reservoirs of the brain’s electrical impulses, or messages. (All nerve impulses of the body travel to the brain, and all nerve impulses from the brain travel to the face). Many of us are able to detect an individual’s state of mind by reading the facial expressions (worry, happiness, pain, etc.) and many of us have used touching the forehead as a gauge of the inflammation of bodily organs. One can detect such signs even if the subject tries to disguise them.
The face is the show-window of the entire body. The face is the yardstick whereby one determines the inner or true person. Through face reading, which Taoists have developed into a science called Taoist Personology, one acquires insight into a person’s personality and his past (inherited genetic traits), present and even future (since past and ongoing scientific studies have shown that the mind possesses powers that determine a person’s destiny).
Taoist Personology was originally utilized for diagnostic purposes. It is based on the fact that all conditions of the entire body could be properly gauged by the face. Gradually, Personology became a social scientific study of the relationship between two variables: facial features and individual fates. Each feature was studied one at a time, through the use of data from millions of individual cases. Direct correlations between facial features and specific fates were found after thousands of years of continuous statistical analysis.
The principles of Taoist Personology have withstood thousands of years of continuous application and have never been proven invalid. In the West, the association between the facial features and temperament is instinctively understood to be true: corporations always conduct personal interviews, for one example. Moreover, the work of a western scientist named W. H. Sheldon proved that there is a definite relationship between physical appearance and temperament.
The determination of an individual’s fate involves reading the facial features individually, judging the color, shape, and disfigurations of the many areas of the face. The face is divided into 108 areas.
Each area represents one facet of an individual’s existence: spouse, children, wealth, etc. Also, each area represents how the individual fares at a particular age. The state of matters at the present time can be determined when blemishes suddenly occur in these areas. In practice one would read a suddenly-erupting blemish in area 49 and 50 as trouble with one’s children. A detailed explanation of the facial map of life can be found in The Great Tao.
Another branch of Taoist Personology involves the utilization of the Yin-Yang as well as the Five-Element Theories.
Besides becoming a “right” person and acquiring a “right” position, a person must deal with the “right” people. In dealing with people, it is best to know them first. Yet truly knowing people is the most difficult matter in the world for managers or anybody else in any situation.
In order to help us know people thoroughly, accurately, clearly, and quickly, the ancient Taoist scholars provided us with a formula, thoroughly explained in The Integral Management of Tao: Complete Achievement. This Taoist formula utilizes both the Yin-Yang and Five-Element Theories, amazingly affirming the knowledge of the so-called “new study of the modern age”the study of the human brain and its newly formulated theories, called brain research or neurosciencewhile filling chasms in knowledge due to unexplored areas of modern research. What is most amazing is that the ancients had the ability to utilize the knowledge for practical use. As we may already know, modern brain research studies show the human brain to be divided into two hemispheres: the right and left. The left brain hemisphere dominates the right side of the body and is the basis for an analytical, critical, logical personality. The right brain hemisphere dominates the left side of the body and give the human being an artistic, philosophical, and politicial personality. Milleniums ago, when he wrote the Classics of the Internal (Nei Ching and Ling-Su Ching), the Yellow Emperor divided the brain into Yin and Yang sides, according to their properties. Furthermore, the Yellow Emperor found subdivisions within these two divisions as well as an integrative-non denominative subdivision, forming five brain sub-hemispheres. The personalities arising from these sub-hemispheric brain dominances draws parallels from the Five-Element model of universal classification, the Five-Element Theory. A complete personality profile as well as a simple system for managing the interactions of these personalities were developed based on the Five-Element Theory and given the name Five-Star System.
For immediate recognition of the personality types, the work for which each personality is compatible (assures highest results and highest satisfaction automatically), and how to achieve harmony and efficiency among the personalities, please consult The Integral Management of Tao: Complete Achievement. If the simple concepts of the Five-Star System were applied to every area of life, the potential for conflict resolution, stress and tension reduction, and efficiency elevation would be limitless.
II: FINGERPRINT SYSTEM
It is an indisputable fact that every individual possesses a unique set of fingerprints. Through Taoist studies, fingerprints have been tied to the I-Ching system, thus enabling the determination of the personality, aptitudes, interests and health of an individual, along with suitable choices for marriage and occupation. Fingerprints are much more than an aid to criminal investigations, and the Taoist Fingerprint System is another invaluable method for understanding oneself and others.
The Fingerprint System will be the subject of a new book in the not too distant future.
III: TAOIST NUMEROLOGY
Numerology is the science of numbers. From the beginning we have traced the evolution of the universe: the progression from one atom to the solar system to the universe. The order of this progression can be expressed by the number one through nine inclusive. According to Taoist legend, these numbers arose on the back of a turtle from the Lo river 6,000 years ago, already correlating to the numbers of the Pa Kua.
Just as the trigrams are used in the I-Ching to clarify the enigmas of life, these numbers are used in formulas to facilitate an understanding of one’s earthly existence. Taoist Numerology is used to determine one’s destiny, past life, compatibility with others and compatibility with one’s vocation. One determines such enigmas by converting one’s name into numbers and utilizing the explanation of the numbers to illuminate one’s own condition. Please bear in mind that Taoists interpret numbers differently from western numerologists in that both positive and negative meaningsYin and Yangof a number are explained in detail in The Great Tao.
IV: NORTH STAR
The North Star Astrological System is the means whereby the darkness of uncertainty is lifted from our lives. The North Star astrological chart is a blueprint of one’s entire life. The chart reveals in detail one’s financial and marital prospects. It can reveal the amount and kind of property one may own. It can reveal the appearance of one’s spouse and the abilities of one’s children. It can reveal all the potentials and pitfalls that life will unveil on a daily, monthly and yearly basis. With foreknowledge of life’s potentials and pitfalls, one can act harmoniously with the cosmic forces that govern our lives. One’s personal relationships, health and business will improve, and life will no longer be tormented by tension and stress.
From Dr. Chang’s point of view, the North Star Astrological System is the most accurate in existence. It is the only system which utilizes the North Star and the Big and Little Dippers as the major or primary stars, and the stars of the middle sky as the minor or secondary stars. In total, one hundred and eight stars are utilized.
These stars are unlike those of the twelve constellations of the zodiac which are used in the other systems of astrology. Every second we are bombarded by electromagnetic waves emitted by the stars. Taoism traces the particular actions and reactions that characterize our lives to the electromagnetic influence of these stars. To govern every second, day, month or year of our lives, those stars must always be present, like the North Star, which is even more constant than the sun. The sun leaves our sight at night, but the North Star is forever present, regardless of the time of day. However, the stars of the zodiacal constellations are present only at specific times of the year and are absent for the rest of the year. For example, Cancer appears only during the summer months of every year.
The Big Dipper is very important in the North Star Astrological System. From earth, the “handle” of the Big Dipper is seen to rotate 360 degrees clockwise. Completion of the handle’s rotation indicates the passage of one year. The moon, which traces the progression of the month, and the sun, which traces the progression of the day, are also very important in the astrological system.
The position of these stars during one’s birth influences the outcome of one’s life. They also serve the function of recording one’s every action in life, to determine how we must repay for our actions in the next life.
In 1964, the year Dr. Chang researched the Han Dynasty astronomical findings, he found further validations of the correlation between celestial and earthly phenomena. In the year of Jesus’ birth, astronomers of the Han imperial court recorded the appearance of an enormous, bright star. The star was seen both at night and during the day. It moved slowly from the east to the west.
During Jesus’ birth, three wise men appeared from the east bearing gifts of gold, frankincense and myrrh. Since the Bible mentioned that the wise men came from the east and followed a star to find Jesus, they could have come from Persia, India or China, where astrology and astronomy flourished at the time.
To determine the nationality of the three wise men, one must examine the nature of their gifts. In China, there was a tradition of giving infants presents made of pure gold. The tradition is still alive today. And there was a tradition of giving mothers frankincense and myrrh, as these are the best herbs for healing the wounds of childbirth. Only in China are frankincense and myrrh used for healing wounds. Therefore, it appears that the three wise men may have come from China. The Han court may have sent three envoys to follow the star, find the infant Jesus, give him and his mother their gifts, and prove the validity of the astronomers’ proclamations.
During the Han Dynasty, astrology was extremely popular. Everyone believed in it. Everyone also believed that each person on earth is represented by a star in the heavens. They believed that when a great man is born, a great star appears and rises and that when he dies, his star fades and falls. Astronomers were assigned to watch the skies twenty-four hours a day. The star that appeared upon Jesus’ birth would have been looked upon as a signal of the birth of a great man.
The various aspects of lifecareer, marriage, money, etc.are divided into twelve categories, called the Twelve Houses. The position of a star within the Twelve Houses reflects the position of that star during one’s birth. And how one fares in a particular aspect of life is guaged by determining the effect the star has upon a particular house.
This is a simplified view of the North Star System. This summary was given because a complete explanation of the astrological system would fill volumes. Because a complete and accurate book on the North Star System exposes the Will of Heaven, whether such a book will or will not be written on the North Star Astrological System can only be determined by God.
Anything that occupies space and time is directional and has sides that face North, Northwest, Northeast, South, Southwest and Southeast directions. Directionality arises when North and South are defined. North and South poles in turn are defined only when there is magnetism. All magnetic phenomena are essentially electrical in nature and ultimately can be described as arising from interactions between the moving and spinning electrons of the atomic nucleus. We are composed of atoms, so essentially our bodies are magnets. Like the lodestone, we are subject to the forces of attraction and repulsion while at the same time exerting magnetic forces upon other matter which are also attractive or repulsive in nature. There are also short-range electrical, as well as many other, forces that one matter exerts upon another.
When we expand our point of view from the microcosmic to the macrocosmic, we find that these forces are the attractive or repulsive forces between one human being and another, and between a human being and money, property, and so on.
It is the purpose of Taoist Directionology to guide us in directing these forces so that our ventures or undertakings will be more propitious. Taoist Directionology is the science of selecting the most auspicious direction for achieving success in any undertaking whether through action or inaction.
Directionology can be applied to all areas of life, from birth to death. One major area of application is housing, because we spend the majority of our lives within buildings. Many of us are familiar with this application of Taoist Directionology upon buildingswe know it as Feng Shui. Buildings, as well as their furnishings, occupy space and time and possess eight exposures to the eight directions. They emit forces that affect their owners. Therefore, the placement of buildings and furnishings must correlate with an individual’s directionality. When the placement is inauspicious, there is interference with the individual’s brain waves, and creativity, logical thinking and emotional balance are disrupted.
A company is maintained by division of labor among its employees. That is why a company is divided into many departmental units, such as marketing, accounting and manufacturing. The employees of a particular department think, act and dress similarlythey are one entity. The forces emitted by these people as a unit should be directed in such a way that the unit’s undertakings are successful. This is why Directionology can be tremendously beneficial in business. For the proper directions to which the various departments of a company are assigned, please consult The Integral Management of Tao: Complete Achievement.
Japan’s economic success is based on the thorough study and application of the principles of Taoist Directionology. Understandably it is extremely popular there.
Western businessmen who have utilized the principles of Taoist Directionology in Hong Kong have reaped immediate and great benefits. Recently, U.S. magazines reported that a few famous American firms have also gotten wonderful results from applying the principles of Taoist Directionology. Benefits range from successful business mergers, new businesses, robbery prevention, improved worker cooperation and productivity increases for company members to marital bliss, health improvement and career success for individuals.
Further applications of Directionology concern determination of proper burial sites, correct color usage (which enhances its effectiveness), crop rotation, travel, etc.
Through Taoist Directionology one can live in harmony with the higher influences that govern our lives. Life will cease to be a series of struggles that result in few rewards. (Yet one must be cautious of false Directionologists, as its popularity sometimes leads to its abuse and its concomitant plethora of unintended hardships, with the end result of Directionology being reduced to a superstition if not wholly discredited.)
Directionology is a complicated subject that can only be explained in the space provided in an entire book.
VI. FIVE-ELEMENT LIVING FENG SHUI
Very often the static rules of “Feng Shui” are inadequate to address individual differences. If it is determined that a person’s constitution is predominantly composed of certain elements, how could general rules apply if an individual’s constitution demands specifications the exact opposite of those specified by general rules? With Five-Element Living Feng Shui, the sole discovery of Dr. Chang, one could determine one’s elemental constitution and easily adjust every surrounding environment into a favorable one specifically suited to oneself. Everything related to a person can be adjusted―from diet, to color of clothing, to the direction one faces. Wherever one’s strength may be enhanced so may one’s weaknesses be patched up and strengthened, resulting in a wholly reinforced and strengthened individual. Through the process of determining one’s elemental composition, over-concentration of certain elements and under-representation in others will be brought to the surface so that the right regular food diet, herbal diet, colors―everything could be determined for maximum strengthening. As an added bonus the determination process―a charting process―is fun and easy. But a complicated secret formula for application is impossibly difficult to explain within the space of a large book. In time a book on Five-Element Living Feng Shui will be written.
VII: TAOIST SYMBOLOGY
Taoist Symbology is the use of spiritual codes to facilitate daily activities, bring mankind closer to the Tao, and hasten mankind’s evolutionary progress.
This is possible because symbols, or multi-formed artistic embodiments of the concepts of Taoism, influence the workings of the universal forces and of one’s own body for one’s own benefit as well as other’s. Because the key words here are for other’s benefitthere is a conscientious awareness of the greater good rather than a strictly limited focus on self-centered desiressuccess in achievement has a basis in the logical laws of the universe (Cause and Effect Law, etc.), not in black magic.
The workings of the universal forces are influenced through telepathic dialogues with those who are in a higher evolutionary level. The vocabulary of these dialogues are calligraphic symbols which are developed by Taoists under the guidance of these higher beings. Certain wishes are projected from the mortal world to the otherworld by painting these calligraphic symbols on a piece of paper and then burning it, or by embedding these symbols in permanent forms of art, such as carvings and paintings.
Many symbols were developed for many practical purposes, including:
Making the atmosphere peaceful, hospitable, clean and holy, anyplace, anywhere
Reminding a person to do good deeds
Aiding in meditation
Decorating the home
Protecting against evil
Sending prayers (by focusing your concentration on your wishes)
Helping in one’s evolution
The Pa-Kua sign is the primary symbol of Taoism for harnessing the powers of the universe. For complete information on its scientifically-based evolution, please refer back to Introduction to Taoism: Yin and Yang Theory. It can be produced in any size and it can be hung in any place. It is hung to provide protection, peace, balance, success, power and righteousness.
One college professor testified to its effectiveness. His office was located between two other offices which belonged to two ladies who fought bitterly and constantly. He was always dragged into their fights, which occurred without any good reason. They all realized this and tried everything to stop the insanity. They tried seeing psychologists and psychiatrists, but nothing worked. The man even contemplated resignation. To resolve this terrible situation, Dr. Chang recommended that the professor hang a Pa-Kua sign in a place where everyone would notice it. Almost immediately he went back to tell Dr. Chang that he felt the vibration change when he hung the sign up. He also said that no one ever fought again.
A student of Dr. Chang’s had a friend who was both an accountant and an investment advisor. This friend, confident of his abilities, ran expensive advertisements which brought only very few clients to his door. For years his business was extremely slow, so he considered changing locations. Then the student purchased a Pa-Kua sign and gave it to his friend as a gift. In that same week, his friend’s office was crowded with people and his phone rang unceasingly. His friend did not have to move to another office. Both thought the sign was responsible for the sudden change in luck.
Dr. Chang himself personally experienced the power of the Pa-Kua. A young woman brought her mother to his office seeking his help. Her mother had been possessed for twelve years and during that time had been placed in mental institutions, treated by psychiatrists, and had been the subject of several exorcisms performed by several ministers. Nothing worked. When the mother came in guided by her daughter, he was slightly taken abackhe had never seen anyone look like her. She had a green face. Some areas of her face bulged out and some sank in. Her lips were blue. Her dark brown hair, cut short, stood up by itself. She tried to say something but no words came out. She suffered from shortness of breath and she did not have the strength to walk or stand. After the young woman helped her mother sit down, she asked him for his help again. As Dr. Chang sat down behind his desk to ponder the problemhe never came across a case of possession before, and had to think of another way to help the woman because he did not favor exorcismshe heard a sharp scream. He looked up quickly. The screams came from the daughter, who was exclaiming, “Look at my mother! Look at my mother!” His eyes rested on her mother, who looked completely different! Her face was no longer green! Her cheeks were pink, her complexion was smooth, and her lips were rosy! Her hair lay flat on her head and it was blond! The mother stood up crying and walked toward him, saying, “Dr. Chang. Thank you! Thank you! That thing has left me!” She hugged him. But he had to tell her the truth: “Dear lady, I don’t deserve your thanks. This wonderful miracle you deserve so much is none of my doing. From where you sat you faced the Pa-Kua symbol directly. The evil spirit couldn’t withstand the power of the symbol. That must be the answer!”
Symbols come in many forms. Some are drawn with red or black ink on papers that are of the colors of the eight directions. These can be placed in silk bags and carried on the person. (Taoist masters always made symbols for their students to remind them of the Tao). Wood, stone, glass windows, pottery, and lacquers can also be carved with symbols. A sample of symbols as well as explanations of their significance can be found in The Great Tao.
Symbol to bring assistance from the Sovereign
VIII. THE TAO OF MANAGEMENT
As long as human beings exist, management will exist. As long as two people must live together, management will be needed. Although the instruments that enable human beings to perform many tasks may change in time, the principles of human psychology and behavior never change. The best management has always been the key that unlocks human potential. Therefore, from the household to the White House, good management is a common necessity.
The Integral Management of Tao is the method which provides all the essential knowledge and wisdom a human being could possibly possess. In addition, this method is in the words of Lao Tze “simple, easy, and effective.”
The history of the evolution of Taoist Management methods and principles was as long and as hard-won as the history of China. Every theory was tested and proven effective by iconic figures of history, sometimes at enormous cost in turbulent, dangerous times. Even in chaotic times, Taoist Management principles were immediately effective in overcoming obstacles and achieving peace and wealth for the general population. In peaceful times its powers can lift human populations to higher evolutionary levels. Therefore, Taoist Management principles must not to be taken lightly; it must be studied and practiced in reverence as a gift bestowed by God upon mortal humans. Regardless of who you are, as long as you are the one who wishes to accomplish and establish something meaningful in this world, the Integral Management of Tao is for you.
In the latter centuries of the Chou Dynasty (c. 1122 to c. 256 B.C.), power was decentralized and distributed among numerous feudalities, which later fused into seven major kingdoms after much struggle. Each and every one of the remaining kingdoms sought the common goals of wealth and strength. (In many respects the evolutionary pattern of the kingdoms prefigures that of current corporations.) In the pursuit of these goals, there arose in every kingdom a great need for managerial expertise, a need that generated nine different schools with nine different managerial theories and styles. The nine styles are summarized as follows:
STYLE OF THE SCHOLAR
Founded by Confucius, this style emphasized order as the most important basis for management. Under this major premise, absolute loyalty was assumed to be the basis for order. It followed that all managers, whether “princes” or “ministers,” were motivated out of absolute loyalty to each other and their organization to subordinate individual needs and do everything necessary to assure the organization’s success. For when the organization benefited, every member benefited; and when achievement, honor, failure, or shame was experienced by one member, it was experienced by all. Such demands for loyalty were not unlike the demands made by the family. Even the moral codes used by the organization to engender and enforce loyalty paralleled those used by the family. So managers were conditioned for absolute loyalty since childhood. It was thought that children who showed promise (who grew up to be loyal to their superiors and king) were those who excelled at learning moral codes and being loyal to their elders. Hence the proverb: A loyal minister comes from a filial son. The Scholarly Style of management was the prevailing style in almost every dynasty for thousands of years, even though experience proved it defective. In reality, the ideal of an orderly, efficient organization welded together by absolute loyalty is illusory and impossibly hard to realize, because true loyalty is almost impossible to achieve. Instead of functioning as a problem-solving, success-oriented force, the managerial team turns into an efficient mechanism for smokescreening inefficiency, scandal and corruption. An in depth analysis is given in The Integral Management of Tao: Complete Achievement.
Advocates of this style rejected the dependency upon empty, impractical concepts of absolute loyalty in favor of concrete, unshakable laws or rules. These were further enforced by a system of rewards and punishments. Such a system ensured undeviating adherence to laws and rules, or specific duties and procedures, to maximize efficiency and prevent and ferret out inefficiency and corruption. But this management style also had defects. The unrelenting enforcement tactics and strictness involved made the style inhumane. Not only were those tactics psychologically and physically taxing for the entire organization, but they were also ineffective in the end. To determine whether rewards or punishments were merited, reams of data were gathered on employees and then interpreted. Usually rewards or punishments were distributed regardless of the fact that interpretations may have been biased by personal viewpoints. And those who did the reporting were rewarded while those who did the work were punished. The result: resentment and harsher punishments. As punishments lost their intimidating qualities, managers would explore the entire gamut of punishments, each harsher than the last, until the severest punishment remaining was death. But when death was no longer feared, all was lost. When taken to extremes the Legalist Style of management was an early form of fascism and was despised for its inhumanity.
The word mo means “ink.” Laborers use the word mo to describe how their complexions have been darkened by their labors under the sun. The Mo Style of management advocated employee rights, for the belief that sincere efforts to secure their health, happiness, comfort, and prosperity would be rewarded with the kind of cooperation and integrity of work that would propel everyone to success. The success and welfare of employees directly affected the success and welfare of the organization. It was considered wise to remove any employee grievances that affected performance negatively by meeting employee demands. Throughout the centuries, the demands have been for nondiscrimination of class, creed, sex, race, area, distance, etcin other words, complete equality. Specific demands included the right to equal opportunity, to form unions, to on-the-job training, and so on. Fulfillment of these demands was based on love; as long as everyone loved each other and did everything for and with love, everything would be accomplished. However, for various reasons, leaders of political, economic, or other organizations were discouraged from utilizing this style.
STYLE OF PRODUCTIVITY
According to theories of the Productivity Style of management, exercises in love, laws, moral codes, etc. were exercises in futility; only the full application of human resources served the realization of wealth and strength. Allowing any waste in human resourcesthat is, lack of production from any segment of societywas considered a crime. No one was exempted from worknot even the prince, who must work harder than others to set an example. Those who chose not to contribute would not qualify for anything. For example, the prince who neglected his duties would be promptly stripped of his rights to food, power, etc. Without exception, every man, woman, and child proved their worth by their level of productivity and earned their keep. That was the purpose of management: to mobilize everyone for work and maintain high productivity levels (in agriculture, industry, etc.). Only then could goals be reached. But then problems arose. Those who struggled to complete their tasks were rewarded as hard workers, whereas their swifter counterparts were punished as idlers. Productivity in terms of tasks completed declined when people began to devise ways of appearing to be busy instead of actually being busy. Moreover, inundating everyone with work, deadlines, etc. caused everyone to become resentful as well as lose sight of the overall direction or goal. As a consequence, even though the organization was headed in the wrong direction, no one was able to catch the mistake before irreparable damage occurred.
STYLE OF COMMUNICATION
Adherents of the Communication Style of management reasoned that successful management lay not in engaging in blind, wasted action or exemplifying good work habits, but in devising plans and directing and inspiring their execution through effective communication. Once employees understood what was expected of them and were persuaded by the effective use of language to complete their duties, the goals of wealth and strength could be attained. To ensure true understanding (what was communicated was exactly what was understood), the manager must have complete mastery over thought processes, grammar, terminology, persuasive abilities, etc. Logic in language was imperative. If employee duties were not clarified through effective communication, then the inevitable confusion that resulted would cause mistakes and thus generate ill will. Hence, ambiguity in communication was viewed with the greatest apprehension. A measure taken to prevent and remedy ambiguity was to establish clear lines of communication both vertically and horizontally, between and among princes and ministers. The problem with this style was that arguments over the selection or formation of appropriate words, terminologies, sentence constructions, etc. easily sidetracked managers from their goals. Or people became immune to the “empty words” and disregarded them easily. Even worse, those who only “moved their mouths” were rewarded above those who did actual workthe “men of action.”
STYLE OF MILITARISM
Like Sun Tze, author of the famous book The Art of War, proponents of the Military Style of management said that in obtaining goals of wealth and strength, nothing was as efficient or effective as the use of arms and armed forces. Instead of approaching goals in an oblique, timeconsuming manner, one would use armed forces to strike directly at the heart of one’s objectives. On the battlefield, one could scheme and plot, use any plan, tactic, strategy . . . whatever was handy, to defend oneself and overcome the opponent and forcibly attain one’s goals. Managers needed to know nothing more. Although results were immediate, they were not for the long-term benefit and profit of either side. One might be a victorious conqueror but the losses could overshadow the gains. The pages of history abound with the tragedies of war. Lao Tze said, “Wherever the army has passed, briars and thorns spring up. Years of hunger follow in the wake of a great war.” Even Sun Tze himself said, “Conquering the people’s hearts is more effective than occupying their cities.”
STYLE OF DIPLOMACY
To adherents of the Diplomacy Style of management, goals of wealth and strength were best attained through diplomatic means, namely, negotiation. Money, justice, prestige, loveeverything was negotiable, as they said. Many ventured as far as to say that negotiation was management. One used plots, schemes, strategies, tactics . . . whatever was necessary to reach goals, but in this case the weapon was the tongue. Not only was there no bloodshed, but success was guaranteed at very little expense, whatever one’s objectives. However, this style was not free from defects. There was no firm basis upon which long term plans could be set, because everything changed with a twist of the tongue. Negotiation was compromise, and too much compromise became in some cases tripping stones that hindered the attainment of true objectives. In some cases, leaderships were compromised. In others, directions or goals were compromised.
STYLE OF YIN AND YANG
According to the Universal Law of Cause and Effect, an effect is the direct result of a cause; therefore, everything happens because it is supposed to happen. Cause and effect are represented by the concepts of Yin and Yang. As results of efforts to analyze all possible kinds of cause-effect interactions occurring in this universe, certain theories arose, such as:
If one strove in the wrong direction, one failed; and if one strove too much, one also failed. People would not have to confront problems of their own creation if they stopped interfering with the natural laws. God’s plans for the universe should not be contended with, nor should God’s achievements be claimed as one’s own.
From these theories arose a “laid-back,” Yin-Yang Style of management. But problems developed when some opportunists overlooked the fact that human input was needed to bring God’s plans for humanity into fruition, and used the theories to justify their laziness and their avoidance of responsibilities. Some even tried to excuse their failures or shortcomings as the will of God. At worst some used the theories to excuse criminal acts. Because they thought they were not responsible for their actions, they had license to commit any kind of sin they wish. Certain religious fanatics rose to power by taking full advantage of such reasoning to attract a following and engage in immoral or criminal activities.
STYLE OF TAO
Considered to be the greatest, the Tao Style of management provided the means for utilizing all the preceding eight styles for maximum managerial effectiveness. It also provided the means to nullify the negative aspects of each style automatically. In simplest terms, the Style of Tao is the style of water. Water is used by Lao Tze to describe the nature of Tao because it has these properties:
A. Besides being self-propelling, water also carries other objects along its currentsit moves others to action.
B. When it meets resistance or obstacles, its power increases. When fast-flowing water hits an obstacle, all of its energy is completely converted to impact the obstacle with immense force (potential energy into kinetic energy).
C. Water unceasingly searches and wears away rock or land (steadfast obstacles) for new avenues or paths (new opportunities).
D. Water unceasingly cleanses everything in contact with filth, but its cleansing power never diminishes (it always retains its cleansing power, so it is forever improving itself and others).
E. Water flows in rivers and streams to the sea, where it evaporates to form the clouds, from which it is released over land, on which it gathers again into rivers and streams that again flow into the sea. No matter how it changes, it neither loses itself nor its beneficence and efficiency.
About Tao and all of its principles and techniques, extensive explanations will be given in The Integral Management of Tao: Complete Achievement, the contents of which are summarized below.
VIII. TABLE OF CONTENTS OF
THE INTEGRAL MANAGEMENT OF TAO: COMPLETE ACHIEVEMENT
- First Role Model: Chiang, Shang, The Great Duke
- The Tao of Management
- Nine Styles of Management
PART I: BASIC KNOWLEDGE
- THE TAO OF EVOLUTION
- Five Kingdoms
- Seven Levels of Humankind
- Three Folds of the Body
- Seven Ages of Human History
- THE TAO OF YIN AND YANG RELATIVISM
- Two Golden Ages
- Yin and Yang and Their Importance Defined
- Six Types of Yin-Yang Interactions
- Six Laws: Operation of the Universe
- Second Role Model: Su Chin, the Greatest CEO, and Sage Kuei Ku
- THE TAO OF EIGHT ATTITUDES
- Becoming the Right Person
- Accomplishing Missions
- Yin-Yang in an Algebraic Formula
- Eight Trigrams, Reservoirs of Knowledge
- Attitude of Heaven (Goals)
- Attitude of Water (Discipline)
- Attitude of Mountain (Tolerance)
- Attitude of Thunder (Creativeness)
- Attitude of Wind (Loyalty)
- Attitude of Fire (Giving)
- Attitude of Earth (Retirement)
- Attitude of Lake (Entertainment)
- Systemization by Japanese Corporations and Their Competitive Power
- Eight Blessings
- Eight Exercises (for self-improvement and “insurance”)
- THE TAO OF POSITIONING
- Five Groups of Possible Factors Leading to the Obtainment of Positions
- Six Strategies to Guarantee a Position
- Six Situations That Jeopardize a Position
- Four Ways of Safeguarding a Position
- Third Role Model: Moses
- THE TAO OF FIVE-STAR SYSTEM
- Two Hemispheres of the Brain
- Five-Element Theory
- Personality Type: Water
- Personality Type: Metal
- Personality Type: Fire
- Personality Type: Wood
- Personality Type: Earth
- Personality-to-Job Matching for Highest Productivity
- Five-Element Departments in an Organization
- Diagnostic Instrument for Organizations
- Ancient Taoist Structure
- THE TAO OF PSYCHO-DYNAMICS
- Human Nature and Styles of Management
- Psycho-Dynamics (truth of human nature)
- Centripetal Perception
- Centrifugal Perception
- Rules of Physics Dominating Human Psychology
- Analytic Geometric Forms
- Principle of Loss (executives cannot survive without it)
PART II: LOFTY PERFORMANCE
- THE TAO OF LEADERSHIP
- Performance of Commander Chang
- Fourth Role Model Marquis Chang, Liang and Sage Yellow Stone
- Qualities of a Leader
- Leader’s Responsibilities to His Followers
- Leader’s Impression on Followers
- Decision Making
- The Power of the Leader (skills to ensure a leader’s performance)
- Being with Followers
- Sacrifices of the Leader
- Counteraction (of leadership)
- Scheme of Pretense
- Scheme of Jurisdiction
- Swindling Scheme
- Grades of Leadership
- Leadership of Hate
- Leadership of Fear
- Leadership of Happiness
- Leadership of Invisibility
- Emperor Yao
- THE TAO OF COMPLETE RESOLUTION
- Three Mental Functions
- Classes of Decisions
- According to Law
- According to Custom
- According to Intuition
- According to Inference
- According to Rational Confirmation
- Types of Information (ten basics everyone ought to know)
- Sources of Information (five different sources for collecting information according to Sun Tze)
- Thinking Process (that ensures capability)
- Five Relations (unparalleled method for helping you think)
- Functions of Five Relations
- Fifteen Samenesses
- Composition (Taoist method to ensure greatest perfection)
- Final Decision
- Three Reasons for the Occurrence of Wrong Decisions
- Styles of Decision Making
- Decision Making by a Group
- Decision Making by a Leader
- Decision Making by a Brain Trust
- Fifth Role Model: Marquis Chu-Ko, Liang
- Decision-Making Results (that are foreseeable)
- Optimizing Results
- Internal Exercises to Balance the Thinking Process
- THE TAO OF INTERCOMMUNICATION
- Internal Message Chaos
- Intercourse Chaos
- Fifth Role Model: Jesus
- Buddhist Monk (story)
- Four Procedures of Interpretation
- Essence of Movement
- Unnmistaken Conclusion
- Mr. B’s Case
- Orders (how to make others truly listen)
- Three Rules of Order Giving
- Two Forbiddens
- Ordinary Persuasion (negotiate everything and make specific or non-specific people truly listen)
- Impressiveness and Test to Increase Persuasive Power
- Confidence (establishing)
- Classification of People
- Principles of Advantage and Disadvantage
- Persuasive Skills
- Inductive Logic
- Deductive Logic
- Taoist Quaternary Logic (for indisputable presentations)
- More Testimonials
- Further Techniques
- Suggestion (effective presentation to and implementation of ideas for superiors)
- Yin-Yang Pairs for Effective Conduct (subordinate speaking skills)
- Effective Conduct before the Superior
- Yen, Yin, the Famous Diplomat
- THE TAO OF RICHES AND FAME
- “Weight Watching” (organizational health-care)
- Smallness (secret of true success)
- Greed (evaluation of money, power, and fame)
- Rules for Money Lovers
- Monetary Rules
- New Age of Management
- Mission First, Profit Second (for true and everlasting reward)
- Saving the Company, Saving the World
- Subtle Casket Blueprint (precious gift to readers)
- Sixth Role Model: Kung-Sun, Yang, Lord of Fifteen Cities
- Eye Exercises
- Stomach Rubbing Exercise
- Tao of Balanced Diet
- Morning and Evening Prayers
IX. THE INTEGRAL MANAGEMENT OF TAO TESTIMONIALS/REVIEWS
Within a year of the publication of The Integral Management of Tao: Complete Achievement (1988), we received a great many letters, all extremely meaningful. Due to limited space, only a few have been duplicated here for reference:
Leonard A. Worthington, J.D., LL.D., Director Emeritus, Hastings College of Law, University of California:
“The vast scope of the lessons, illustrations and manner of presenting the essential prerequisites for successfully handling the problems of today, while simply presented in this book, are so complete that if the reader were to digest and put into practice the centuries of wisdom contained within its covers the results would be tremendously rewarding.
“You offer a veritable foolproof blueprint for successful and healthy existence in a world beset with fear and unhappiness. The reader who intelligently studies your words of wisdom will find himself the recipient of success and happiness which comes to those who are willing to heed the teachings from higher spheres.
“Among my almost a thousand volumes I treasure yours most highly and it occupies a ‘must’ in my library as it should for others.
“My appreciation to you for this priceless gift to humanity extends beyond a simple ‘Thanks’ because the rewards which I and other readers can anticipate and receive from our intelligent use of this knowledge can extend far beyond our highest expectations.”
Albert S. Humphrey, Chairman, Business Planning and Development, London:
“THE BOOK IS WONDERFUL AND THANKS A MILLION. . . .
“As you know I was part of a research team in ‘management science’ set up by Stanford Research Institute from 1965 through 1970. Our research resulted in statistically discovering the 3 factors which statistically (Chi Square test for significants set at 0.997) separates successful companies and people from mediocrity are:
1) Continued Education of senior people
2) Overt Attention to resourcing the organisation or person (purchasing) and
3) Written down short term plans for improvement
“I was disappointed to discover that these factors were already known in 1,200 BC and that Dr. Chang has written on this in Chapter V. The Kingdom of God.
“Equally interesting is the comparison of Tao to Dr. Otis Benepe who created in our research the Matrix which set out what actions would survive and what actions would die. . . . This same knowledge existing before our time embarrassed me a bit in that we didn’t read Sage Kuei Ku’s book and Su Shu Yellow Stone Sage’s Plain Book earlier. It could have helped our work.
“The justification of the need for management as explained on page 45 should be read by everyone, as well as the last paragraph on page 46.
“The comment of the ‘importance of retribution’ page 53 is significant and bears reading as well as the ‘faster growth brings earlier death.’ In our studies of product life cycles those products which are developed quickly die quickly ie toys, fashion, many convenience foods, and services shows that not much has changed since 1,200 BC.
“Page 54 which covers the need of a good leaderto make educational, training and motivational policies that do not elevate expectations excessively; when plans are made, take care to consider potential problems as well as benefits. These principles we found are necessary in business and management planning work both in the USA and Britain.
“‘Wise men know how to divide their shares’ is a principle which should be practiced widely. Regretfully because this is not practiced, this has been the root of much unrest and bankruptcies in this country since 1974 when Opec really disturbed our world.
“We have found that Dr. Chang is right when he writes ‘when Gigantic egos are coupled with gigantic ambitions, they cause endless frustration and depression, mental illness, and crime.’
“‘And that managers should submit three plans every year; six month plans, two year plans, five year plans and monthly revisions of these plans’ is a principle which we find leads to success; less than this leads to mediocrity.
“I can go on and on about Dr. Chang’s book and the importance of these concepts and ideas to managers who today want to cope with the complexities of their working life.”
John Lindseth, President, Long Life Products, Inc.:
“I thank you for writing The Integral Management of Tao: Complete Achievement. This book has changed my life visibly in just a few short months that I have been studying it. A few more prominent ways include:
“Since reorganizing our business according to the principles of the Five Star System, our
- Sales have more than doubled.
- We have been able to select and hire the appropriately qualified people to balance our corporate team resulting in greatly improved work efficiency and harmony of working relations.
- The direction of our growth is more clearly defined as our creativity is considerably sharper.
- There is an increased sense or feeling of security that the newly organized and more balanced corporate structure gives.
- Our marketing efforts have become very sharp and focused, resulting in our associating with brokers in 27 states.
- As a result of the Eight Attitudes, my work is more focused, more disciplined, and my interaction with my associates is very smooth.
- In communications, the most immediately useful tool has been information on how to speak to people according to their background. This has been invaluable in allowing me to adjust my communications to give the appropriate response. This has resulted in retaining a higher percentage of clients with a correspondingly improved income.
“The examples could, without doubt, go on and on. This is the single most practical and useful book for daily living and working that I’ve seen. I have studied these subjects for years, ranging from taking all of the Dale Carnegie courses to being trained in psychology. Compared to The Integral Management of Tao, these sources pale.”
Vera Brown, Author, President of Vera’s Retreat Inc., Featured on Life Styles of the Rich and Famous, and Honored Woman of the Year by The City of Hope:
“I found that you have simplified a complex subject so beautifully that everyone from all walks of life could benefit from the knowledge put forth in the book.
“It was a realistic approach to a better life through proper and good management of time and effort to help one achieve one’s goals in every area of one’s life.
“It is a book to read and re-read and to keep near you as a reference book to aid you in the management of your life to constantly search for improvement.”
Edvina Cahill, Chief Administrative Officer, San Francisco Unified School District:
“Ideally, this book should be read by people prior to or at the beginning of their careers and during their whole work life, for its philosophies smoothe the everyday business of living into harmonious degrees of understanding.
“Universities might do well to consider adding The Integral Management of Tao to their required reading lists regardless of the course.
“This is a must book for all professions. I’ve enjoyed it!”
San Francisco Examiner:
“Dr. Stephen T. Chang could have looked at David Stockman and Alexander Haig and told President Reagan that their associations with him were destined to fail. According to Taoist facial reading, their classifications clash.”
Andrew Ramer, Author of Little Pictures: Fiction for a New Age and Co-author of The Spiritual Dimensions of Healing Addictions and Further Dimensions of Healing Addictions:
“We live in a time of increasing specialization. It is rare to find anyone with the fine tuning of a microbiologist and the expansiveness of an astrophysicist. In this and in his earlier books however Dr. Chang is presenting us with a way of living in the world that is both ancient and modern, that functions on many levels, spiritual, global, interpersonal and self-actualizing.
“In The Integral Management of Tao we are given a method of organization, of how to function in the world. This material builds upon the personal work described in the earlier books. On the surface this seems to be a book for business people. The examples Dr. Chang gives us come from global corporations and from ancient empires. But if we think of ourselves as the CEO’s of our private lives, then this book has much to say to all of us, in and out of the world of business.
“The two sections of this book are based upon timeless Taoist knowledge. At every step of the way we are shown the relationship between personal choices and the harmony of yin and yang in the cosmos. The movement of those two forces into eight directions, eight trigrams and eight exercises related to them supports a balanced individual making balanced choices. Then Dr. Chang explores the Chinese five element theory, shows how each element generates a basic personality type, and shows how an understanding of the relationships between those types can support an organization’s smooth functioning, from a personal to the departmental level. Nothing, according to Dr. Chang, happens in isolation, and his philosophy offers a simple and useful model for understanding the connections between decisions, leaders, workers, products and the economy.
“The second section of the book is on the nature of leadership itself. It is about how to make right choices by understanding different styles of leadership and their consequences. Here we are shown how a knowledge of the five relations in Chinese thinking, parents, children, superior, subordinate and brother, can help to organize work decisions. There is information on different methods of communication and how each can be used with a different relation. There is also information on the nature of persuasion and how it can be best used in the business world. The appendix of the book brings all of this theoretical material back to the core again, the body, with exercises for vision and stress reduction, a side-effect of most work situations.
“While some knowledge of Dr. Chang’s previous books can be helpful, this book can also stand on its own as a text in leadership training. It is practical and all-encompassing. As government and industry seem to be increasingly out of touch with both the planet and the people of the world, a book such as this seems to me both necessary and rare. If we are going to eliminate war, pollution, hunger and other world problems, we will need a global view such as Dr. Chang’s. So this book is not just a self-help tool for individuals who want to improve their decision-making processes and their financial lives. It is also a guideline for rethinking the ways we have allowed government and industry to reshape, to unshape our world. It’s easy to become attached to what we want to do and what we want our governments to do. In The Integral Management of Tao Dr. Stephen Chang offers us a spiritual view of why and how we can improve our lives, from a personal to a global level.”
James E. Carter, Author, Professor and Former President of the United States of America, and Mrs. Rosalynn Carter:
“[The Integral Management of Tao] means a great deal to us and reminds us of the generous spirit of America.”
Ronald W. Reagan, Former President of the United States of America, honored Dr. Chang:
“Stephen T. Chang has played a vital role in strengthening and safeguarding our nation’s legacy of freedom, hope, prosperity and opportunity for all Americans.”
A Discourse on Management
A Review on Dr. Stephen T. Chang’s The Integral Management of Tao: Complete Achievement by Luke T. Chang, Ph.D.; President, Lincoln University
Some five years ago, through the medium of Mr. Thomas Yang, my friendship with Dr. Stephen T. Chang has developed ever since. Through his courtesy, I was able to enjoy reading his book on The Great Tao. It is a great work, so great that when I casually showed it to Mr. Robert Buckinmeyer of the California State Department of Education, he grabbed it. The book is an in-depth analysis of Chinese philosophy, particularly the Taoist sector. (The book was published by [Tao Longevity LLC under the imprint of] Tao Publishing, San Francisco 1985.)
Recently, Dr. Stephen Chang completed an equally remarkable work, The Integral Management of Tao. . . . It is a theoretical approach of management based on Chinese history and philosophy, particularly from the teachings of the Yellow Emperor, Lao Tzu, Sage Kuei Ku Tzu and the Yellow Stone Sage. According to the author, Sage Kuei Ku’s book, the Kuei Ku Tzu, was written in a rare form of archaic script; it took him special effort to master an ancient languageto read, study and decipher the book. The same is true for Dr. Chang on the Yellow Stone Sage’s Su Shu. In addition, the Kuei Ku Tzu had been declared a forbidden work by feudal lords throughout the millennia, with no one in the ancient or modern world having access to it. I had only heard of Kuei Ku Tzu, never having an opportunity to obtain a copy of it.
I am in complete agreement with Dr. Chang when he asserts in his preface: “As long as human beings exist, management will exist. So long as people must live together, management will be needed.”
The author divides The Integral Management of Tao: Complete Achievement into ten chapters:
The Tao of Evolution
The Tao of Yin and Yang Relativism
The Tao of Eight Attitudes
The Tao or Positioning
The Tao of Five-Star System
The Tao of Psycho-Dynamics
The Tao of Leadership
The Tao of Complete Resolution
The Tao of Intercommunication
The Tao of Riches and Fame
All the chapters are very penetrating in analyzing the subject matter, and are worth painstaking study and due diligent practice. But the chapter “The Tao of Five-Star System” was widely praised because he pointed out that “knowledge of personalities is of utmost importance in the working environment. If a manager assigns a ‘wrong person’ to work on a ‘wrong job,’ everything will go wrong” (p. 110).
In discussing the Five-Star System, which is really interpreting the Chinese philosophy of the Yin-Yang theory and the interplay of the Five Elements (Fire, Earth, Metal, Water and Wood), Dr. Chang pointed out a vivid example in using the system to determine the health of an organization. One of his associates counsels for a major U.S. investment bank interested in a South American country was sent there to examine the situation:
In one week he diagnosed the problem and came up with all the corrective suggestions. Unfortunately, the bank did not appreciate his wonderful method and sent a group of so-called experts to the same location. It took them one year to learn what the problems exactly were. By the time their reports were completed the company in South America had already collapsed. The bank lost all its investments. Later the bank admitted that the diagnostic sections of the reports submitted by my associate and the experts were exactly the same. The only differences were that my associate’s report included corrective solutions and was completed within a week and the experts’ report offered no solution within a year. The bank spent a great fortune acquiring a great loss, just because it lacked this knowledge (p. 113).
Equally interesting was when Albert S. Humphrey, Chairman of Business Planning and Development in London, pointed out that he
was part of a research team in ‘management science’ set up by Stanford Research Institute from 1965 through 1970. Our research resulted in statistically discovering the 3 factors which statistically separates successful companies and people from mediocrity. . . . I was disappointed to discover that these factors were already known in 1,200 BC and that Dr. Chang has written on this in Chapter V. . . .1
This writer particularly admire chapter 8 on the decision-making process. The author elucidates the idea of three compositions from Kuei Ku Tzu. Each composition should explain one of three decisions to be chosen as the final decision by the decision-maker. Each decision must, therefore, be written out fully.
A composition must contain at least four paragraphs:
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The sage suggests that a composition be four-sectioned, to assure completeness. Thus the formula incorporates both logical induction and deduction, in addition to eliciting dialectical demonstrations.
The book combines ancient wisdom with modern knowledge and high output techniques. After you finish reading it, you would feel you are a trained leader in your field with vision and ideas that work. You don’t want to give up the book, as it is practical and all-encompassing for daily living and working.
Now, let me turn to my observation on management in the context of the global scene.
According to my observation, the vicissitudes of the corporations of various industries are mainly due to the quality of management. And the huge budget and trade deficit are also due to failure in governing. Management in private business and government for public interest are the same thing: both require good management.
Take the merchandise trade deficit as an example. Starting in the 1960’s, the U.S. lost steadily its competitive advantage.2 The chart at the end of this article shows that the U.S. position in world trade is shrinking.
The figures are based on U.S. Dept. of Commerce sources. It is widely known that U.S. merchandise lost its competitiveness because the U.S. government does not promote the Research and Development (R & D) as hard and effectively as the Japanese government (MITI) does. In addition, there are anti-trust laws which prevent private corporations from consolidating the resources to do the job. Herein the U.S. lost its competitiveness as well.
In addition, because there is no concentrated effort in R & D, the quality of U.S. goods is becoming less and less competitive with that of Japan and Germany, for example. Small wonder that one Japanese claimed that while in the U.S. he couldn’t find anything made in the U.S. that could measure up to the “scrutiny of a quality-conscious Japanese.” (There was only one perfect item: Vermont maple syrup.)3
However, credit should be given to the Bush [G. H. W.] Administration. It recently tried to improve the quality of products through the use of the “Malcom Baldridge National Quality Award.” It entrusted the National Institute of Standards and Technology to be responsible for development and administering the awards. The first ones were awarded to Xerox Corporation’s Business Products System and Milliken & Company.4 How soon this kind of encouragement could have nation-wide effect remains to be seen, although President Bush on that occasion spoke of making painstaking reassessment and the drive to win back that market share.5 Let me just pick another example: The Economic Policy Institute pointed out that the U.S. stands to lose two million jobs and suffer a $225 billion trade deficit by 2010 if the government fails to boost our industry to compete in high-definition television (HDTV), semi-conductors, computers and digital communication.6
As to the U.S. Budget deficit, the Federal Government is making efforts to reduce it, particularly through the Gramm-Rudman legislation. But bi-partisan Congressional Budget Office (CBO) recently estimated that continuing the status quo in spending and taxes would leave a budget deficit of about $135 billion in 1993.7 To my mind, the following factors contributed to the persistent problem: (a) Social systems, particularly the SSI system. The original idea was good for helping the poor, but the result has been to discourage people from working, producing more homeless and drug users; (b) poor worker-training standards; (c) high consumption; and (d) a low savings rate.8
This is why a study shows that the Japanese gross product, on a per capita basis, will have grown at more than twice that of the U.S. by the year 2000. “Not only had the U.S. become a weak economy incapable of balancing its books, all it seemed able to do was blame Japan.”9
More importantly, consider the fact that the U.S. is now the world’s largest debtor, due to the mismanagement of the national budget deficit and international trade deficit. As Arthur Schlesinger puts it: “Total foreign claims on American assets have more than tripled during this careless decade.”10 He continues to point out its implications of national security if “Our creditors should register disapproval of government policies by dumping Treasury securities and other holdings on the market.” It is indeed an iron law of history “that power passes from debtor to creditor” as Sen. Daniel Patrick Moynihan rightly declared.11
Finally, as the world political and economic scene changes, it is easy to blame the Japanese or Germans. Yes, Germany and Japan do pose problems for the U.S. in the future. But “German-bashing or Japan-bashing is a formula for escaping our difficulties, not for solving them,” as Schlesinger correctly concludes in his article. “Our problem is not Japan or Germany.”12
Therefore, how are we going to solve the problem for the U.S.?
I believe that the basic approach to the solution of the previous discussed issues is education, but not just because I am an educator.
In general, American workers need better schooling and more job training in comparison with their German or Japanese counterparts. They must learn to capture emerging high-technology markets with the greatest opportunity for growth and profit, as the Japanese have done in the past. There is no doubt that Japanese schools produce less dissenting students, who usually receive better discipline; one does not hear much of dropouts or drug addicts. One also does not know of schools producing a glut of lawyers who lead to a glut of litigation in which the law itself does not become a settled or predictable framework for justice.
Perhaps these are the reasons why when Mr. George Bush was a candidate for President, he called for a “Coalition of Education America” in July 1988 and declared himself the “Education President.”13
Lately, as President of the United States, he conferred with the Governors at the Governors Confab (?), brought out his campaign proposal of $500 million in federal aid to encourage improvement in elementary and secondary school education as well as in research projects.
Whatever President Bush and his administration might do for American education or economy, I would like to emphasize what I have said before: “The current activist advocates ‘Human Rights.’ We at Lincoln University lecture on human values. We believe that through proper education, the young people can be improved in their intellectual and ethical standards, thus enhancing human values and maximize the shareholder value of corporations.”14
Above all, modern management covers so many fields and specialties. But fundamentally, one needs to start with ancient wisdom encompassed in The Integral Management of Tao.
1. Quoted from a brochure compiling past book reviews of Dr. Chang’s work which was also published by Tao Publishing.
2. Reprinted from Raymond J. Waldmann, Managed Trade, The New Competition Between Nations, Ballinger Publishing Co., Cambridge, Massachusetts: 1986.
3. Quoted from Best of Business, Spring 1989, p. 56.
4. Refer to Business America, November 20, 1989: pp. 2-11.
5. Quoted from Business America, November 20, 1989: pp. 2-15.
6. San Francisco Examiner, November 20, 1989 B3.
7. The Wall Street Journal, May 25, 1989: A27.
8. Organization for Economic Corporation and Development. (See chart)
9. Best of Business, Spring 1989: 56.
10. The Wall Street Journal, December 22, 1989: A6.
13. This writer was asked to participate in the Coalition of Education meeting in Washington, D.C. in July 1988.
14. Quoted from the writer’s unpublished speech delivered at the 1989 Commencement of Lincoln University in San Francisco.
In addition, President Bush [H.W.] in his recent annual budget message revealed comparisons of savings rates of the world industrial powers. This writer reproduces them in the following for the reader’s reference.
III. THE INTEGRAL MANAGEMENT OF TAO TESTIMONIALS
The following readers’ testimonials reflect a cross-section of the results they’ve obtained:
Dr. Chang, Let me preface what you are about to read by saying that for years now, I have told people that the theories you presented in this book enabled me to lead a great cause about 20 years ago. By staying “focused on our mission” and not letting my troops get suckered into kneejerk reactions every time someone said something disparaging about us, we were able to overcome great odds and superior forces/money.
End of this Chapter
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